Entry with no author in a reference book [from Print source using Vancouver]
Examples of dictionary or encyclopaedia/encyclopedia entries are found in collections such as Credo Reference.
Don't panic if you see several dates inside the book. The date you need to use is the one which matches the edition of the book that you're using. Ignore any dates that are just listed as reprints or impressions. Look on the book cover and see if it says e.g. Fourth edition (it should also say this on the title page inside the book). In this case all that you need to show in your reference in the bibliography/reference list is the date for the 4th edition of the book (and also give the edition after the book title). Search for the book on the library catalogue to check the details needed for the reference if you are unsure.
Editor Initials, editor.[if any] Title of reference book. Nth ed.[if appropriate] Vol. No.[if any] Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Title of entry; p. start and finish.
British Pharmacopoeia 2008 Volume I. London: Stationery Office; 2007. Allopurinol; p. 89-91.
Citation in Text
Remember this will be a running number at the first use of a reference. If the reference is re-used then repeat the number allocated. Keep your style constant, either parenthesis (number) throughout, or superscript number. Do not change between the two. If your department recommends a particular style then use that.
Jones states that "Empty gelatin capsules are designed to have a moisture content between 13 and 16%".(8 p304 )
The moisture content of empty capsules is designed to be between 13 and 16% (8)
Jones states that "Empty gelatin capsules are designed to have a moisture content between 13 and 16%".8 (p304)
- When giving pagination shorten wherever possible - do not repeat page numbers unless they are suffixed by a letter
- pages 125-127 should be given as 125-7 but 125A-127A would remain as 125A-127A
- Omit editor information if it is not given
The Harvard (author-date) system is made up of two parts:
- an in-text citation and a
- bibliographyat the end of the document.
In a piece of research, ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in rounded brackets (e.g. Apple 2013). The bibliography at the end of the document then lists the references in alphabetical order by authorss surnames.
This guide provides instructions and over 130 examples using Harvard referencing. To find a variety of types of sources, you can use the A-Z on each page or the full page listing which includes links to all examples.
Important: There are many variations of the Harvard style. Be sure to match the Harvard style that best fits the style recommended in your course handbook. Always ask your tutor which referencing style s/he wants you to use in your academic work.
Tip! Be consistent in the referencing style you use.
More referencing information can be found in the following LibGuides:
You can also find guides for the following referencing tools: